Doc Org

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  1. The sister of Eman Abd El Aty, an Egyptian woman thought to have been the world's heaviest, has accused doctors of lying about her weight loss after surgery in India. She underwent surgery in Mumbai's Saifee hospital, and last week doctors said she had lost 250kg (550lbs). But her sister said this was untrue, adding that her sister was in delicate health as she may have had a stroke. The hospital has angrily rejected the allegations. The row began on Monday when Ms Abd El Aty's sister, Shaimaa Selim, released a short video on social media, alleging that her sister was still unable to speak or move, and had not lost as much weight as the hospital was claiming. On Tuesday, she told the BBC that the hospital was lying about her weight loss. "He [Dr Muffazal Lakdawala, who led the operation] didn't weigh her before and after. If he has any proof of her weight loss, show us the video of her weight before and after." Describing her sister's health as delicate, she said: "Oxygen is not normal in her body. She has to wear an oxygen mask almost all the time. There is a tube from her nose to her stomach because she can't eat or drink well from her mouth. But a spokeswoman for the hospital told the BBC that Ms Abd El Aty was weighed again on Monday and she now weighed 172kg. Dr Lakdawala also strongly denied the allegations in a tweet. Image copyright TWITTER Eman Abd El Aty suffered a stroke at the age of 11 and her weight meant she was unable to leave her home for 25 years. She was flown in a special aircraft in January to Mumbai's Saifee hospital where she underwent bariatric surgery in March by a team of doctors, led by Dr Lakdawala. The hospital says she can now fit into a wheelchair and sit up for longer periods of time. It released new pictures of Ms Abd El Aty following weight reduction surgery. Reports say Ms Selim is unhappy because the hospital authorities believe that Ms Abd El Aty's treatment is almost over and that she can be sent home to Alexandria soon. "There are cases like this in other parts of the world. In America and in other countries, there are heavyweight people. They have been in the hospital for one or two years to lose weight and become normal. "But just after a month or two here, the doctors say that I can take my sister back. I asked them how, as she is still very big and if anything happens to her in Egypt, how can I go to a hospital there? "It would be impossible and nobody would help me in Egypt. I said, 'Please please keep her for a long time to help her lose weight'," her sister said. Bariatric surgery, also known as weight loss surgery, is used as a last resort to treat people who are dangerously obese (having a body mass index of 40 or above, or 35 with other obesity-related health conditions).
  2. Anaphylaxis
  3. Epinephrine Auto Injector helps self injecting Epinephrine in an Anaphylaxis Patient at the required doses. It is used as a shot intramuscular injection. These are used as intermediate measures while definitive treatment must be followed by a trained physician in an emergency setup. This means Epinephrine auto injector is not complete treatment for a patient with anaphylaxis. What is Epinephrine Auto Injector: Just like any other auto injector (Morphine Auto Injector, Insulin Auto injector), Epinephrine auto Injector is also a dose calibrated injector.
  4. Anaphylaxis Kit should be a standard component of any Emergency Medical Services. A patient in anaphylaxis deteriorates very fast and anaphylaxis kit is handy to save life. So, what are the anaphylaxis kit contents? How can it be prepared? An ideal Anaphylaxis Kit should contain the following: A portable bag with space for injections, syringes and vials An instruction booklet or Anaphylaxis Management Plan 02x Epinephrine Auto Injector 02× Hydrocortisone sodium succinate 100mg 01 × 1ml Chlorphenamine Injection 10mg in 1ml 01 x IV Cannula 18g Green 02 x Needle 23G x 1¼ 02 × 1ml syringe 01 x Guedel Airway Size 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 one each 01 x Resuscitation Face Shield 01x Normal Saline 500 ml Anaphylactic Kit is not for routine use and only be used by trained medical practitioner or under supervision. Epinehrine auto injector can be used by a patient when prescribed by a doctor as self injector.
  5. Anaphylaxis management Plan helps health professionals quickly assess and treat a patient on anaphylaxis. In a true anaphylactoid reaction one seldom gets time to do investigations to establish a diagnosis. Patient sinks fast and early treatment saves life. Anaphylaxis management plan has the following components: Assesment: A quick assessment to know the status of the patient includes vitals pulse, BP, Respiratory Rate, SPO2 Life Suport: Get IV aceess, Start O2, Give ventilatory support Diagnosis: Diagnosis should be clinical and based on history. Ask following questions to patient or his Next of Kin : “Have you been exposure to a known allergy/trigger?" “When did symptoms start, and what are you current medications?" “Has this happened before?” “Are you asthmatic?” Treatment: IM ADRENALINE (1:1000) 0.5 ml (500mcg); repeat at 5 minute intervals if no improvement. This route is not recommended after cardiac arrest Or, IV (1:10,000) 0.5 ml (50mcg) if severely ill, peri-arrest or pulseless; ie the dose is different NEB SALBUTAMOL 5mg (if wheezy) IV HYDROCORTISONE 200mg IV CHLORPHENIRAMINE 10mg Procedures High flow oxygen: >10 l/min IVI + IV fluid challenge: 500 – 1000 mL. Repeat if necessary Lie patient flat, elevate legs Monitor cardiac and respiratory function
  6. Fake Ultrasound Picture Maker? It's a surprise to see, how many people are after these fake reports everyday. Most of them look for fake pregnancy reports. Others go for malingering various medical conditions. Though the purpose of faking a pregnancy is not very clear, often it seems to be revenge, excuses and for maternity benefits. The advantage of this is, they can fake an abortion also later. From my personal experience, I have faced people visiting me and asking for fake ultrasound pictures. They just want the name, date typed and fake an ailment. There may be people, lab out there providing such fake reports for a price. But the probable legal implications they are risking is huge. It is unethical to provide such reports and should be discouraged as a whole. That is where recording and checking your ultrasound settings may be useful, if you don't want somebody selling your reports. In modern USG machines you can set a pass lock to prevent this. Out of curiosity, I looked for such things and what I found was really entertaining. I landed on a website http://www.fakeababy.com who provides everything to fake a pregnancy starting from a initial Urine beta HCG to 3D fake Ultrasound reports. They even sell wearable breast implants to mimic pregnancy stages and a pregnant silicon belly too. My goodness. Everything is delivered online. Means, it is a popular business, may be the purpose of using these are not limited just to mimicry. There I found another answer. Couple, who are going on surrogacy and trying to hide that from others, this is a way. I had seen one or two reports generated online from them and these shall look real to non professionals. Of course, an ultrasound tech or Radiologist can identify them as fake. I thought though, these can be used as good prank!
  7. You read over your notes. Then you read them over again. Then you read them over a third time. Then you take the test and are surprised at just how much you missed. Despite reading everything three times! A lot of study time is wasted because of one problem: you fail to learn things the first time around. Repeatedly going over the same information like putting a band-aid over a sieve. It may reduce the water that slips through, but it doesn’t solve the fundamental problem: that you have too many holes. The key to reducing the amount of time you study is simple: learn things the first time you see them, instead of after dozens of repetitions. This is all easier said than done. I’m sure if your mind was without holes you could easily capture any information that slipped into it. The real question is how can you do this? I don’t believe it is just a matter of being a genius or chance, but based on how you study. Step One: Find the Holes If you want to repair a leaky brain, you need to figure out where the holes are. Identify what type of information you have trouble remembering. Recognize when you’ve just gone over information you don’t quite understand. Here’s a few questions to ask yourself after every chunk of ideas to find your holes: What from this section am I most likely to forget? What concepts are completely new to me? (Rather than ones that feel familiar) Which ideas am I having the most difficulty grasping? When you identify weak points, you can invest more time in fixing those instead of wasting time with a blanket studying technique of all information. Step Two: Repair Weak Points Once you’ve identified potential weak-points, you should immediately seek to fix them. Drop everything your doing and seek out a fix for the problem. Programmers understand that a bug left in the system can create several hundred times the cost to fix it later. As a learner, you need to understand that the same principle of fixing problems quickly also applies. There are hundreds of books written on various strategies to fix weak points, which is a bit outside the scope of this quick article. But here are a few starting points: Memorizing? If you need to store arbitrary information, try using the link method. This is where you visualize an exaggerated image that combines the two things you want to associate. You can memorize formula’s this way by linking vivid pictures to the different symbols. A formula such as F = C/A, could become a scale with hundreds of (F)eathers on side and a giant (C)aterpillar sitting over millions of (A)nts. Conceptualizing? If you need to understand information try drawing a picture or diagram to combine the ideas. Retaining? If you need to retain a complicated mass of information try using metaphors and vivid examples to connect the abstract information into something you can easily relate to. Repairing weak points in your understanding isn’t that difficult – if you first know where they are. Simply focusing on a piece of information can help you understand it. But if you don’t know which parts you’re missing, it is easy to skim over everything and not realize what you’ve missed. Step Three: Check Your Understanding Do you “get” it. Does the information make sense to you at a deeper level, or does it seem arbitrary, meaningless or difficult to derive? Most school tests and virtually all real-life tests are designed to answer a single question: do you understand what you’re studying? If you aren’t sure, that’s when you need to start working deeper. Keep asking yourself “why” until you reach a point where the subject makes sense. Here are some tips for improving your understanding: Look for sensory descriptions.Your brain isn’t a computer. It’s designed to retain emotional, vivid and sensory information better than abstract or dry details. Link a sensation, picture or story to the abstract details. When learning how to do determinants (a form of math using matrices) I imagined my hands moving through the diagonals, one adding and one taking away. Get the background. A lot of information that seems meaningless makes more sense when given a context. If your stuck on trying to wrap your head around a particular point, do some research into it’s origins. This may take more time up-front, but can save hours as future concepts are built upon it. Step Four: Test Yourself Whenever you’re experimenting with new learning methods, you need to measure the results. Check to see whether your new system is actually helping you remember more. Once you get familiar with a system, you can more accurately judge the extent of your knowledge. But until then, test regularly so you can tweak the system to fix errors. The best tests are objective ones. If you’re in school, look for past exams, tests or textbook questions to check your understanding. If you’re teaching yourself, come up with short exercises that can prove to you conclusively you know what you’re doing. The most important piece of advice I can give is this: treat study time as being sacred. Go in with the expectation that you will either learn everything through the first go, or you will identify areas that need further clarification. Focus and become aware of any potential holes so you can learn things once.
  8. Table of Contents What is Anaphylaxis Definition of Anaphylaxis Pathophysiology of Anaphylaxis Mechanism of Action of Anaphylaxis Types of Anaphylaxis Causes of Anaphylaxis Risk Factors For Anaphylaxis Signs and Symptoms of Anaphylaxis Treatment of Anaphylaxis References What is Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis or Anaphylactic Reaction is the most severe from of acute onset and rapidly progressive allergic reaction, often proves fatal, if not treated timely. Anaphylaxis is a true medical emergency. There is often (but not always) a history of previous sensitivity to an allergen, or recent history of exposure to a new drug (eg vaccination). Definition of Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is defined as a severe, life-threatening, generalised or systemic hypersensitivity reaction after systemic exposure to specific antigen involving multiple systems and organs which often characterized by vascular collapse,hypotension, shock and/or distress due to laryngeal edema or intense bronchospasm. Other manifestations may include nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and diarrhea. Anaphylaxis word depicts Ana (without), phylaxis (protection). Though, there is no predisposing age, gender, race or geographic factors, there is a increased incidence after eighteen, reason being probably people after that age group are sensitized already. ⇑ Back to Table of Contents Pathophysiology of Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis is a a IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity reaction. Though Anaphylaxis can occur at any age, the mean age was 29.3 years (range, 0.8 to 78.2 years) in a study. In another, there was an age range of 1-79 years, with a mean of 37 years. Though exact anaphylaxis pathophysiology for all incidents are not known, in almost all cases, it is caused by exposure to specific antigen with previous history of hypersensitivity. When allergen binds to IgE-sensitised mast cells and basophils, histamine is released from their intracellular granules. Mast cells are widely distributed but are most concentrated in skin, lungs, and GI mucosa; histamine facilitates inflammation and is the primary mediator of clinical atopy. Histamine causes the following: Local vasodilation (causing erythema) Increased capillary permeability and edema (producing a wheal) Surrounding arteriolar vasodilation mediated by neuronal reflex mechanisms (causing flare) Stimulation of sensory nerves (causing itching) Smooth muscle contraction in the airways (bronchoconstriction) and in the GI tract (increasing GI motility) Increased salivary and bronchial gland secretions When released systemically, histamine is a potent arteriolar dilator and can cause extensive peripheral pooling of blood and hypotension; cerebral vasodilation may be a factor in vascular headache. Local vasodilation (causing erythema) Increased capillary permeability and edema (producing a wheal) Surrounding arteriolar vasodilation mediated by neuronal reflex mechanisms (causing flare) Stimulation of sensory nerves (causing itching) Smooth muscle contraction in the airways (bronchoconstriction) and in the GI tract (increasing GI motility) Increased salivary and bronchial gland secretions When released systemically, histamine is a potent arteriolar dilator and can cause extensive peripheral pooling of blood and hypotension; cerebral vasodilation may be a factor in vascular headache Highlights IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity reaction Mediators are histamine, leukotriene C4, prostaglandin D2, and tryptase ⇑ Back to Table of Contents Mechanism of Action of Anaphylaxis There is a rapid onset of increased secretion from mucous membranes followed by bronchial smooth muscle tone elevation in a already sensitized person. Vascular smooth muscle tone decreases fast and capillary permeability gets increased post exposure. These effects results from histamine, leukotriene C4, prostaglandin D2, and tryptase, the primary mediators of anaphylaxis. In the classic form, mediator release occurs when the antigen (allergen) binds to antigen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) attached to previously sensitized basophils and mast cells. These mediators gets released immediately once the antigen binds the masr cells. Thus, exposure to an inciting substance causes direct release of mediators, a process that is not mediated by IgE. Increased mucous secretion and increased bronchial smooth muscle tone, as well as airway edema, contribute to the respiratory insufficiency ⇑ Back to Table of Contents Types of Anaphylaxis Anaphylaxis types can be classified broadly as Immunological and non-immunological. Immunological. Though immunological is the most common form, non immunological type cases are reported. It appears that non immunological has a lesser severe form of anaphylaxis than the immunological types of anaphylaxis. Immunological further can be subdivided into IgE and non IgE mediated types. True Anaphylaxis: True anaphylaxis follows the chain of pathophysiology of anaphylaxis, and resultant of release of mediators from mast cells. True anaphylaxis is always appear only in a previously immunized individual. Pseudo Anaphylaxis: The presentation, symptoms and signs of pseudoanaphylaxis is similar to that of true anaphylaxis. But it appears without any history of previous sensitization. Some drugs exert pharmacological effects on the immune systems which result in a response that is independent of its recognition structures. Thus they activate effector and amplification mechanisms that are normally triggered by specific immune processes. That is how Pseudo anaphylaxis results. Pseudo anaphylaxis needs same management and treatment as true anaphylaxis. Depending on course of anaphylaxis it can be classified as under: Uniphasic Anaphylactic reaction: Single episode of anaphylactic reaction and often self limiting. Biphasic Anaphylactic reaction: Second episode of anaphylactic reaction, which may be more severe in intensity. Protracted Anaphylactic reaction: Extended duration lasting for upto 30 hrs and not limiting by medications ⇑ Back to Table of Contents Causes of Anaphylaxis In most cases cause of anaphylaxis cannot be determined. Thats why idiopathic amounts for as large as 37% of the cases. In known cases, food is the primary cause of allergies. Pharmacologic Agents: The most commonly encountered drugs in anaphylaxis is parenteral antibiotics (especially penicillins), IV contrast media, NSAIDs like Aspirin or any other drugs with positive allergic history. Foods: Certain foods (most notably, peanuts), seafood, fish, shellfish, milk and eggs, wheat, oral medications and many other types of exposures also have been implicated. Stinging Insects: Insect stings from bees, hornets, yellow jackets, wasps, fire ants etc. Multiple bites are more vulnerable to anaphylaxis than single. Latex: Latex, though rare causes anaphylaxis rarely Exercise Induced Anaphylaxis: Triggered by exercise and varies from person to person. Often related to eating habits before exercise or weather - hot, cold or humid has also been linked to anaphylaxis in some people. Caution Don't delay diagnosis and treatment in the want of establishing the etiology. In most cases it is Idiopathic. ⇑ Back to Table of Contents Risk Factors For Anaphylaxis Comorbidities: asthma (particularly if poorly controlled), atopy, COPD, psychiatric disorders (due to under recognition), cardiovascular disease, mastocytosis Concurrent medications:, alcohol/antidepressants/sedatives etc impair recognition of symptoms, beta-Blockers and ACE inhibitors worsen them Recent anaphylactic reaction Age: children (under recognised), adolescents (risk-taking behaviour), elderly (increased mortality due to multiple medications) ⇑ Back to Table of Contents Signs and Symptoms of Anaphylaxis Symptoms are acute in onset, variable and may affect: Skin/mucosal tissue: pruritus, generalised hives, flushing, swelling of lips, tongue, uvula/palate, larynx, nose, eyes + other areas (angio-oedema) Respiratory tract: dyspnoea, wheeze, nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, sneezing, hoarseness, cough GI: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, incontinence Cardiovascular: chest pain, palpitations, syncope, altered mental status, shock, cardiac arrest CNS: sense of impending doom, throbbing headache, dizziness, confusion, tunnel vision, loss of consciousness Other: metallic taste in mouth, dysphagia, dysphonia, uterine contractions Signs of Anaphylaxis: Pale, clammy skin, urticaria Hypotension, tachycardia, bradycardia (a late sign), other dysrhythmia Increased respiratory rate, wheezing/bronchospasm, stridor (laryngeal obstruction), cyanosis Decreased level of consciousness Management of Anaphylaxis References
  9. Handheld ultrasound device is the future of all USG scanners. No wires, no more clutters. These devices are so user friendly, cozy and portable that any radiologist can hardly resist from getting one. We compare the best of them available in today. 1 Clarius Wireless Handheld Ultrasound Device Clarius manufactures one of the most advanced handheld ultrasound device, which wirelessly streams data to most iOS and Android devices. You can see view live view on your iPad or Android screen with the help of a simple app. There is a cloud storage option also, and a digital library is just a touch away. It has passed recently CE Mark approval for the commercial sale of the C3 and L7 Clarius Wireless Ultrasound Scanners for use by medical professionals. C3 Scanner is capable of multipurpose scanning of all parts of the patient’s torso, including the heart. The devices exhibit outstanding resolution with its convex array for abdominal and lung images. L7 is Linear Array Ultrasound Scanner and ideal for guiding procedures. Easy to sterilize and keep clean. One can easily get fine detail from 1 to 7 cms from L7. Both the devices come with full body metal jacket which gives a premium look. These devices have 45 minutes of active battery life and 7 plus hrs standby time. Approx Cost $‎6,900.00 for BW / $‎9,900.00 with Color Doppler Official Page Product Page For Ultimate Portability, User friendliness, Premium Look and feel, Cloud Storage, FDA CE Approved, Included Warranty Against Price 2 Philips Lumify App Based Handheld Ultrasound Device Phillips Lumify handheld ultrasound probes are time tested device and connects to your tab or smartphone with a micro USB port. Its got a simple interface to manipulate and requires just an installation of the Lumify App. Lumify goes where you go, so you can start scanning without searching for equipment in the emergency department. It looks more or less like a standard ultrasound probe with a micro USB on the far end. Lumify doesn't need to be charged. Once connected, It is powered by your Android device. The Lumify app enables users to store scans, images and has the ability to share via email. It also has cloud based storage ability. The app only recognizes Lumify probes, and during first set up device registration is required. Unfortunately Lumify doesn't support iOS. Lumify has three types of probes, S4-1, L12-4 and C5-2. Lumify S4-1 is suitable for Lung, Echo, Abdomen, Ob Gynae and FAST. Lumify L12-4 is meant for soft tissue, superficial, MSK and Vascular in addition to Lungs. Approx Cost Flexible pricing options starting at $199/month, with 12 & 24 month subscriptions Official Page Product Page For Portable Design, Flexible Pricing Against Wired Connectivity, No support for iOS, Only available for distribution in the USA 3 Healcerion SONON 300L Handheld Ultrasound Machine Healcerion’s SONON 300L, 300C and 300MC are both CE and FDA approved product line in mobile ultrasound device compatible with iOS and Android technology. Quite a small to fit in your pocket and light enough to operate with two fingers. With a weight of 369g and 78(W) x 229(L) x 38(H)mm dimension, it's one of the best devices to carry around. Just like Clarius it has Wifi (2.4GHz) connectivity and can be paired with an existing smartphone or tablet to conduct scans. The device has a 2600 mAh Li ion Rechargeable battery, which delivers amazing scan time of 3 hrs. The SONON mobile application supports both iOS and Android device and providers can scan patients and transmit images and recordings securely to any hospital via Wi-Fi, 3G, or LTE networks. SONON 300L is for MSK(Muscular-skeletal), Orthopedics, Vascular, Pediatrics, Sports medicine, Point of care, Ultrasound-guided procedures and color doppler. 300MC is basically designed for Veterinary, Pediatrics, Neonatal, Point of care, while 300C is only suitable for general and Ob Gyne. Approx Cost SONON 300L: 8,000USD, SONON 300C: 6,000USD Official Page Product Page For High Resolution, Color Doppler, Wireless Connectivity, Portable and Sleek Design, Compatible with any Smartphone or Tab, CE and FDA approved Against No Cloud 4 Fujifilms Sonosite iViz Handheld Ultrasound Device Unlike Claurius and Lumify, Fujifilm Sonosite is not compatible to Tab or Smartphones via apps. It comes with a 7 inch display system. The high-resolution touch screen and innovative thumb operated user interface helps the doctor quickly go through various modes and enables quick diagnosis. iViz supports a range of clinical applications, interchangeable transducers, and optimization controls allowing accurate assessment. The display unit can be easily held on left hand enabling the user operate with his thumb, while his right hand scans through the transducer. Integrated Wi-Fi and Bluetooth connectivity allows iViz to connect to Hospital Medical IT Systems, Cloud Solutions or Patient Vital Sensors. There is a remotely diagnosing capability via secure cloud-based telemedicine solutions where patient information can be accessed iViz and send reports to the EMR, Other connectivity like Micro USB, HDMI ports, and audio ports allow iViz fully compatible to any other medical Info systems. Approx Cost Official Page Product Page For Cloud Strage,Connectivity, Flexible Pricing, Telemedicine Functionality Against Comes with a display unit, cannot go really mobile 5 Mobisante MobiUS SP1 System Handheld Ultrasound Mobile Mobisante's MobiUS is an irresistible deal when it comes to appearance and feel. MobiUS SP1 System comes with a 800×480 WVGA touchscreen that easily slips in pockets. Along with the probe it weighs 11.6 oz. only. It has 8GB internal storage and connects to PC or other devices via WiFi or PC sync. There is another option for 3G connectivity. The in built battery allows continuous scan time over 60 min. It supports two types of transducers 3.5 and 5.0 MHz which is for Abdominal, OB/Gyn and guidance procedures. The Second type is 7.5 and 12 MHz and suitable for vascular, guidance procedures, small organs. The product is FDA approved. Approx Cost $7495.00 Official Page Product Page For Wireless Connectivity, Size, FDA approved Against Low resolution display, No Cloud, Non compatible with other Smartphone or Tab,
  10. We have restricted views to guests. This means, unless you are a member, you can't view all items in this site. Reason? We have a track of all our visitors while we grow. Registration is easy and fast. Caution All registrations, which are done manually, without going through social account shall ask for user account verification via email
  11. 4. Revert If the currently-selected file has saved changes (i.e. it is different from the default theme that we ship with the software), the Revert button will be available. Clicking it will revert the file back to its default status - any customizations will be removed from it. This is often useful after an upgrade where a file may be out of date. In those situations, reverting a file and then manually reapplying the necessary customizations is the best course of action. 5. Variables Most templates have variables passed into them by the backend code; these variables are often used to output data, or control the display in other ways. Clicking the Variables button shows you the variables being passed for the selected template, so that you are aware of what data is available to the template. Note: Don't add, change or remove variables from this dialog unless you are developing an addon and aware of what you are doing. Changing the variables here will cause errors because it will no longer match what the backend is passing to the template engine. If the currently-selected file has saved changes (i.e. it is different from the default theme that we ship with the software), the Revert button will be available. Clicking it will revert the file back to its default status - any customizations will be removed from it. This is often useful after an upgrade where a file may be out of date. In those situations, reverting a file and then manually reapplying the necessary customizations is the best course of action.
  12. Version 1.0.0

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    Objectives and explanation for USMLE Step one with Anatomy, Physiology and Microbiology
  13. Here is a step by step video demo on how to join a study board and download a file.
  14. LASIK is a surgical methodology that uses a laser to correct partial blindness, farsightedness and astigmatism. The LASIK surgery is done by an ophthalmologist who utilizes a laser to reshape the eye's cornea, keeping in mind the end goal to enhance visual acuity. For most patients, LASIK gives a lasting alternative to contact lenses or eyeglasses. LASIK can likewise adjust astigmatism by smoothing an irregular cornea into a more usual shape. If you are thinking about LASIK eye surgery, your initial step is to pick a decent LASIK specialist who can assess whether LASIK is appropriate for you. Your LASIK specialist will analyze your eyes to decide their health, what sort of vision revision you need, and how much laser ablation is required. LASIK is most like any other surgical remedial methodology, photo-refractive keratectomy (PRK). As per the year 2011, more than 11 million LASIK methods had been performed in the United States in 2009 more than 28 million have been performed around the world. ELIGIBILITY FOR A LASIK EYE SURGERY: LASIK surgery is a kind of refractive eye surgery. Amid the strategy, an eye specialist makes a flap in the cornea and later on uses a laser to reshape the cornea and correct the refractive issues in the eye. LASIK surgery is suitable for the individuals, who have a direct level of refractive error, causing: Astigmatism, in which you see nearby objects, yet far off objects are hazy. Farsightedness (hyperopia), in which you can see far things easily but nearby things is blurry. A decent surgical result relies upon cautious assessment of your eyes before the surgery. To be qualified for LASIK surgery, potential applicants must meet the accompanying criteria: AGE - Candidates must be no less than 18 years of age. GENERAL HEALTH - LASIK applicants must be in good health and should not have certain medical issues, including uncontrolled diabetes, collagen vascular illness, or take any pharmaceutical. EYE HEALTH - Candidates ought to be free of eye ailments including keratoconus, glaucoma and certain retinal and optic nerve diseases. EYE INJURY - Patients should not have any eye diseases. DRY EYE CONDITION - Patients should not persistently experience the ill effects of dry eyes. STABLE VISION - The vision of the candidates must be steady for no less than one year prior to the procedure date. CONTACTS - Prior to your LASIK surgery consultation and LASIK strategy, you should not wear contact lenses for a specific time. The exact length will be controlled by your specialist on an individual basis. This guarantees corneal soundness and precise evaluation of your prescription prior to the LASIK surgery methodology. NURSING/PREGNANCY - Candidates should not be pregnant or nursing while experiencing the LASIK procedure. Hormones may influence the strength of your prescription, so pregnant or nursing ladies are not qualified to seek LASIK surgery until three menstrual cycles in the wake of nursing has been ceased. These are some of the points which show if you can go for a LASIK eye surgery or not. Via Lasik Eyes Surgery
  15. Please re download. seems download was not complete