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Dr. Avadesh Kumar

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Dr. Avadesh Kumar last won the day on February 14 2016

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  1. Why cannot I take the PLAB Tests

    Taking the PLAB MCQ type tests are easy. First you need to signup. Once you are logged in when you go to PLAB tests to take it it shows like this If you see the red warning you cannot take this test, make sure that you have joined the plab club. If you haven't joined yet click the JOIN CLUB button as shown above. Once you have joined, go back to the tests and these will be available to you.
  2. 12 Lead ECG Placement Mnemonics

    12 Lead ECG Placement Mnemonics helps to remember placement of chest and limb ECG leads. Often the respective leads indicators are marked on chest leads. Limb leads are color coded and marked too. There are three types of ECG leads available: Banana Type Snap Type Pinch/Clip/Grabber Type Banana Type leads are common with old pattern of ECG machines. Chest leads are marked with C1, C2 or like V1, V2. Todays leads also carries a color coding. Snap Type is used very frequently and attached to the connector with a snap or button. Easy to use with disposal type of connectors and these are frequently used in ICU, NICU and Emergency deptts. Apart from color coding, often chest lead numbers are marked as V1, V2.. and Limb leads as RA, RL, LL, LA. The other type is Pinch type ECG lead and it has a clip type mouth to connect to the connector. In most cases, the leads are numbered, so that you dont have to remember them. It is true for both chest leads as well limb leads. The problem arises when the numbers fall off due wear and tear or when not numbered at all. In this case the color coding helps. The 12 ECG chest lead standard color coding are like this: With the help of numbering and color coding any lay man can place ECG leads without a mnemonic. But when only color coding is there it is really difficult. With the help of this mnemonic one can remember the color corresponding the lead. Real Yummy Glass of Bear Brings Peace Red> V1, Yellow> V2, Green> V3, Brown> V4, Black> V5, Purple> V6 For limb leads starting anticlockwise from right hand> Wrong Gemstones Return Badluck: White for Right Hand, Green for Right Leg, Red for Left Leg and Black for Left hand
  3. A Leucocyte's Autobiography

    Table of Contents Great Things Better Things Next Things Worst Things Good Things Bad Things Bakwas Things Section 1 Great Things These are great things to eat. Section 2 Better Things These are better things to eat. Section 3 Best Things These are the best things to eat. Back to Table of Contents
  4. Ultrasound scanning is an essential clinical tool which provides images of the fetal internal anatomy. Sometimes it is also referred to as sonography because it relies on high-frequency sound waves to generate cross-sectional slices through the body. A probe or transducer is coated with a scant layer of conductive gel and placed directly on the skin. It emits ultrasound waves, and the gel ensures that the waves pass smoothly via the skin. Ultrasound waves are reflected by various structures that it encounters. The time taken by the waves to return and their strength, form the foundation for interpreting details into a clear image. Sophisticated computer software conducts this portion: Ultrasound imaging has distinct advantages such as: It uses real-time visualization to view the organs and the fetus. It is non-invasive. It does not rely on ionizing radiation, which is harmful to the embryo. Ultrasound imaging is interactive because the operator can capture numerous viewing planes by maneuvering the probe. Ultrasound technology today enables healthcare practitioners to view internal images in 2D, 3D, 4D and even 5D. If you are planning to buy ultrasound machine the following are some key differences between 2D, 3D, 4D and 5D ultrasound images: 2D Ultrasound It is the traditional ultrasound scanning. It means the probe sends and receives ultrasound frequency waves in one plane. Waves which are reflected back are black-and-white images of the fetus in a flat plane. The ultrasound transducer Toshiba is moved across the stomach to enable numerous viewing planes. When the correct plane is found, as indicated by the image produced on the monitor, a still photography is captured and developed on film. An example of a 2D ultrasound machine is Medison X6, Siemens X150, Edan DUS60. Innovation in transducer technology has improved visualization of abnormal and normal anatomy contrast resolution including a bi-directional Doppler flow which enables enhanced vascular study. You can even look for GE Voluson portable ultrasound machine to add convenience to your medical profession. 3D Ultrasound More advanced development of imaging technology has promoted volume data or differing two-dimensional images which are created by reflected waves at angles which differ from one another. High-speed computing software then integrates this information to create a 3D image. GE’s Volusion I creates 3D ultrasound images by combining image volume data acquisition, volume display and volume data analysis. The operator obtains volume data by, freely moving the probe with or without using position sensors, relying on mechanical sensors that are built into the probe and using matrix sensors. Data is displayed in a rendered image, tomographic mode or multi-planar format. The multi-planar format enables the operator to assess multiple 2D image planes simultaneously. 3D ultrasound technology such as the Toshiba Aplio 500 and GE Volusion E8, have many advantages over the conventional 2D ultrasound machines such as: Virtual planes enable enhanced visualization of fetal heart structures. Better diagnosis of fetal face, skeletal and neural tube defects. This technology helps to identify structural congenital anomalies in the 18-20 week scan. Reduced time for standard plane visualization. Less dependence on operator’s experience and skill for diagnosing fetal anomalies. Recorded data is available for remote viewing. 4D Ultrasound This ultrasound technology enables live streaming of 3D images. In other words, patients can view the live motion of the fetal valves, heart wall blood flow, etc. 4D ultrasound technology is 3D ultrasound in motion. A 3D transducer is utilized. GE’sVoluson E10 4D ultrasound machine enables you to see moving images of the various organs in the fetus. Currently, its clinical applications are still under investigation. Most people seek 4D ultrasounds for keepsake videos, a practice which is currently discouraged by some medical watchdogs. Advantages of using 4D ultrasound include: Shorter duration required for fetal heart screening/diagnosis Volume data storage capability for expert review, screening, remote diagnosis, and teaching Enhances parental bonding with unborn baby Promotes healthier behavior as a result of viewing the baby in real time Father’s provide more support after visualizing the baby’s movements Better identification of fetal anomalies 5D Ultrasound Currently, Samsung is the main player in the 5D ultrasound technology arena. Their ultrasound portfolio includes theSamsung WS80A Elite. 2D ultrasound captures axial images, whereas 3D relies on volume. 4D images combine volume and time while 5D attempts to bring a new level of workflow, which borders on automation. Samsung entered the ultrasound arena after considering which exams are very time-consuming. They wanted to identify ways to assist sonographers with this process. 5D ultrasound technologies is a type of automation where you undergo a scan, and the results are auto-populated for you. The operator will receive assistance in getting more complex exams done, or the entire examination itself is semi-automated. Both should significantly improve workflow. Eventually, consistency will also improve because the process of searching through volume to locate data and how measurements are conducted is standardized. Currently, the practice is more evidence based. Samsung’s Elite performance 5D heart application packages enable the operator to create nine standard fetal cardiac views all at once. It will help to relieve the pressure of screening and diagnosing congenital heart disease, which is a leading organ-specific defect. Samsung’sWS80A includes features such as 5D NT or nuchal translucency and 5D LB or fetal long bone. Samsung’s Elite performance package combines 5D Heart and 5D CNS aimed at the central nervous system. It displays 6 measurements which are BPD, OFD, HC, Posterior Fossa, Cerebellum, Atria lateral ventricle from 3 transverse views. Samsung’s Ws80A Elite performance package has currently received a 510(k) clearance. It debuted in the U.S. at the 35th Annual Meeting for the Society for Maternal Fetal Medicine. Source Post your opinions

    SIGECAPS or SIG-E-CAPS is a popular mnemonic used to describe the eight signs of major depressive disorder (MDD). Major depressive disorder is also known as major depression, unipolar depression or clinical depression. It’s persistent low mood and self esteem or such episodes of two or more weeks, without a history of Manic, Mixed, or Hypomanic Episodes. When these episodes are accompanied, it’s a bipolar disorder and not MDD. The depressions in MDD doesn’t arise as a result of other psychosis, substance abuse, trauma or other medical conditions. SIGECAPS are the 8 below signs of Moderate depressive disorder. To diagnose MDD at least 5 signs of SIGECAPS must be present for at least two weeks of duration. Sleep disturbance – Sleep disturbance may be in the form for increased or decreased sleep. Early morning wake up, late night sleeplessness, oversleeping, laziness or any of these may be associated. Interest reduced – Lack of interest leads to zero initiative and drive. Day to day life both at work and home suffers. Individual tends to pend anything and everything. Also sex drive is reduced. Guilt sensation and worthlessness – This happens without any reason. Patient starts thinking that, whatever he did was all wrong and he has no personal value in the society. He starts avoiding contact with people and social atmosphere. Energy loss and fatigue – Lack of energy is obvious and goes side by side with reduced interest. Easy fatigability without any physical disability is another sign. Concentration problems – Fleeing of Ideas, lost look, disinterested attitude leads to loss of concentration. This causes memory issues and frequent forgetfulness. Appetite – Appetite may be increased or decreased markedly. Psychomotor – Psychomotor agitation or retardation may show up. It involves a aggravated or slowing-down of thoughts and change of physical movements in an individual. Psychomotor retardation can cause a visible slowing of physical and emotional reactions, speech and affect. Suicidal tendency or Suicidity – At severe stages, frequently a MDD patient may have suicidal thoughts. In the United States, around 3.4% of people with major depression commit suicide and up to 60% of people who commit suicide had depression or another mood disorder. So, SIGECAPS is just Sleep ,Interest, Guilt, Energy, Concentration, Appetite, Psychomotor and Suicidity Related Reading : Dolichocephaly, Paracetamol Overdose, Sgarbossa Criteria, Acne Vulguris, Coarse Ventricular Fibrillation, Cushing’s Triad,

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